Monday, March 21, 2016

After primordial oscillations a Foam: the secondary structure of the universe

Sloan Digital Sky Survey The accumulation of gravity bound structures is shown in yellow. 


The Big Bang, the hundred years old idea that is meant to explain the even distribution of the universe is in trouble. The microwave background radiation, which is the only tell-tale sign of the formation of the universe, is in clear contradiction with central origin of space. As my earlier blog demonstrate, gargantuan spatial fluctuations could gradually slowed down due to friction, which might have given rise to microdimensions. The existence of microdimensions means that any change in field curvature requires energy. Energy requirement slows and inhibits changes, and stabilizes spatial structure. Current data well supports such a process. Analysis of the universe material distribution at the largest scales shows a filamentary, wavy organization, completely congruent with a mixing and spreading of three dimensional waves within a perfect fluid. Indeed, gargantuan spring oscillations in a perfect vacuum would lead to highly fluid oscillations. In addition, such fluid and frictionless oscillations must have ended as space transitioned toward a harder state.

More detailed analysis of the universe reveals a foamy structure embedded within the large scale filaments. The above image is a time lapse photo of the universe; large scale foam structure evolves toward the more recent, lower portion of the image. In physical processes such structure arises, due to whipping or expanding material within a flexible medium, which can retain its inner structure through hardening. The secondary organization of the universe consists of various sized empty bubbles surrounded by galaxies and other gravity bound structures. These secondary formations resulted as expanding space formed gargantuan bubbles and pushed positive curvature regions outward. The above data suggests that the universe, which have started out as a highly flexible system, was subjected to whipping or expansion before gradual hardening.

Laniakea Supercluster of Galaxies  Curved paths indicate material movement


The reason of this solidifying can be found in the smallest structure of space, in string theory. The birth of the microdimensions of string theory (called the Calabi-Yau space) must have been a universal break on the oscillations. Interactions of the microdimensions produces gravity, which hardens spatial structure. Indeed, gravitational regions, accompanied by great field strength, form rigid structures. The rigid gravity areas retain a solid and stable large-scale structure, whereas smaller-curvature areas are highly flexible. The stiff structures of galaxies only form outside or around the regions of cosmic voids. The above image clearly shows the opening of the empty void enclosed by gravitational regions. Light converges due to the gravitational pull of large objects and diverges due to the negative-curving field. Thus light does not follow a straight path: on the grandest scale the cosmos is like a house of mirrors. More details, such as the role of gravity in the large scale structure of the universe can be found in my book, 'The Science of Consciousness'. On the above figure Laniakea Super-cluster contains the Milky-way galaxy, the home of our own solar system.

Sign up for my mailing list or follow on social media:

The Science of Consciousness Post, your news about the mind
The Science of Consciousness, please join the discussion
Website: The Science of Consciousness


Monday, March 14, 2016

Primordial oscillations, an alternative mechanism to the Big Bang

Microwave anisotropy map of the universe


Big Bang is the scientifically accepted theory for the initial formation of the universe. The model accounts for the gargantuan size of the universe and its apparently perfectly even distribution. To solve the presumably extremely high initial density with the resulting uniform structure all over space, an immense and sudden increase in size, explosion, has been put forward. To accommodate observations that showed an extremely smooth distribution of the large scale structure in the cosmos, a faster bang, called inflation was suggested. However, the driving force of inflation is missing, and the mechanism conflicts on many points with the microwave background radiation. Below I introduce an alternative mechanism that can generate a uniform matter distribution throughout the visible cosmos, and it is also coherent with the microwave background radiation.

The book, ‘The science of consciousness’ proposes that strings are the primordial energy of the universe. Replacing the traditional Big Bang with energy vibrations is an idea that originates in string theory, where point-like particles are replaced with strings, one dimensional energy vibrations. String oscillations as the source of matter and all structures of the material universe might be shocking. However, primordial string vibrations could occur with abundance and fluidity, because without stable spatial structure no temperature or pressure could form. The kinetic energy of string fluctuations would accumulate as the self-energy of a smooth, symmetric and an information blocking horizon, which separates an insulated micro dimensional space, thereby calibrating the constant energy level of space. The formation of the microdimensional space would give rise to the first interactions, time zero of the universe. Interaction, which is an energy requiring volume exchange between the macro and microdimensions, stabilized the spatial structure. The beginning of time gave birth to interacting fermions.


time evolution of the large-scale structure
The time progression from left to right shows the gradual formation of foam (credit: NSF)



In congruent with string oscillations, the latest findings show a filament structure on the largest scales of the universe. The above mechanism also fits well with measurements of the cosmic background radiation, which shows that the curvature of space is nearly flat and the fluctuations show almost Gaussian (even) distribution. On the above image the series of pictures above indicate how the evolution of gravity bound structures occurs parallel with the expansion of space. Without the existence of a stable spatial field, lissome string fluctuations could not have given rise to gravitational waves, and consequently, Big Bang gravitational waves cannot be detected with even our current, fairly sophisticated technology. (The recently detected gravitational waves are the result of black hole collision.) The decreasing amplitude oscillations could very well calibrate the constant energy level of space and, at the moment of creation, spike the temperature, allowing recombination and nucleosynthesis. The high temperature would drive spatial expansion. Secondary interactions would give rise to a foamy structure. This simple mechanism can eliminate many problems that plague the theory of Big Bang and inflation.

Want to learn more? More information can be found in my book, The science of consciousness


The Science of Consciousness Post, your news about the mind
The Science of Consciousness, please join the discussion
Website: The Science of Consciousness

Monday, March 7, 2016

The holographic principle, a possible explanation for particle mass

Natural logarithm of three generations of fermion masses. The natural logarithm of fermion masses increases linearly within each particle type (quarks, electrons, and neutrinos). The only deviation is for down quarks. 

Material fermions come in three families. The exponentially increasing masses of particles within one particle family has been a puzzle. 'The science of consciousness,' introduces in a cohesive, coherent physical view that examines particle operation, and cosmology from a same perspective, which shed light to the puzzling differences between masses of fermion generations. Particles are not static object, but can transform into each other within one family by controlling energetic changes of the environment. Landauer’s principle recognizes the thermodynamic connection between energy and information. For the first time ever, converting information into free energy has been demonstrated (Toyabe et al., 2010) and the exact amount of heat released when one bit of information was erased has been measured by BĂ©rut and colleagues (2012). As a consequence, information saturated regions will heat up, whereas energy rich areas will be cold. The holographic principle in string theory recognizes that the information of a volume of space is contained on the boundary (Susskind, 1994) and black holes are information-saturated. The regions of black holes, which are know to be information saturated therefore should display extreme (hot) temperatures. Taken together, the holographic principle and Landauer’s principle mean that information accumulation of particles by the incessant standing-wave tick-tock of the universe eventually uses up energy and turns those particles into black holes. This is an important realization, because it means that within one family, particles only differ in their energy-information content and energy information change would exponentially increase mass. If this is true, than the natural logarithm of particle mass within one family would formulate a straight line. The above figure clearly shows this to be the case. The vastly different mass members of the three-particle families are stable only within the corresponding field strength of vastly divergent gravity environments. For example, within Earth’s mild gravity, only the lowest mass of each particle type is stable. However, greater gravity environments, such as neutron stars would favor the second or third generations of fermions.


Want to learn more? More information can be found in my book, The science of consciousness


The Science of Consciousness Post, your news about the mind
The Science of Consciousness, please join the discussion
Website: The Science of Consciousness