Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Sex differences in human lifespan are also true in other mammals




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In human populations, women live longer than men. All species mammalian females also live longer than males, but there are no sex differences in the rate of aging. Males and females age at the same degree. Demographic data from 101 species shows that the female’s median lifespan is, on average, 18.6% longer than that of males of the same species. However, the difference is very variable across species, meaning other factors need to be considered to explain this variability. In humans, the female advantage is, on average, 7.8%. For example, nine out of 10 people who live to be 110 years old are female.

Females have two X chromosomes, while males have an X and a Y. The theory is that the extra X in women has a protective effect against harmful mutations and that this holds true in other species. Nevertheless, the cause for the long life of females is probably an interaction between environmental conditions and sex-specific genetic variations. For example, males devote more resources towards specific functions (such as mating, fighting) compared with females. 

There is hope for men after all; the risks of dying are not increasing more in males than females as they get older. Although male mortality is always higher, the rate of dying is about the same in both genders as they age.




Read the whole article in PNAS:


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Saturday, March 21, 2020

Understanding the Coronavirus: The Hammer and the Dance







Adopted from: Coronavirus: The Hammer and the Dance by Tomas Pueyo



The coronavirus is new. We know very very little about it. We have to learn to stop hand-shaking and give hugs. We must open doors with our elbow. We must wash our hands after touching a doorknob. We must disinfect tables before sitting down. Masks can help to avoid infecting other people when we are sick and reduces the likelihood that we get infected. All of these are pretty cheap ways to reduce the transmission rate. The less this virus propagates, the fewer measures we’ll need in the future to contain it.

Strong coronavirus measures today should only last a few weeks, there shouldn’t be a big peak of infections afterward, and it can all be done for a reasonable cost to society, saving millions of lives along the way. If we don’t take these measures, tens of millions will be infected, many will die, along with anybody else that requires intensive care, because the healthcare system will have collapsed.



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Friday, March 20, 2020

Humanity's grand challenge: hope during the Coronavirus epidemics







What can we learn from Italy and China about the Coronavirus?

Young people (under 30) have much, much lower mortality rates than older individuals.
SCREEN SHOT 2020-03-20 AT 9.56.28 AM
What can older folks do to improve their chances of recovery?
A good diet and social distance is a good start but what is we had a treatment would be a game-changer!  GAMECHANGER Therapy? Hydroxychloroquine & Azithromycin as a COVID-19 treatment... (an antimalarial & an antibiotic). See the chart below, which displays this combo's *stunning* results. Here’s the original article.
HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE AND AZITHROMYCIN
Source: Gautret et al., 2020.

Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID‐19: results of an open‐label non‐randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents – In Press 17 March 2020 – 
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949


Image, Coronavirus under microscope (NIAID-RML)

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Friday, March 6, 2020

Is the cosmos infinite or discrete?






Is the cosmic infinite or discrete? Currently, physics cannot decide between the two contrasting views. The answer is related to dimensionality. In mathematics, the number of dimensions reflects the number of independent characteristics you can adjust to the underlying system. In quantum mechanics, every possible position of the electron defines a different state space. Gravity also represents smooth changes in curvature. But information physics shows that there is a limit to the parameters the describe holographic spaces, such as black holes.

Dividing the universe by an information blocking horizon gives rise to a compact energy space, where the wave functions, i.e., particles live. The waves can form fluid-like behavior, such as interference and entanglement. Interference is the combination of ripples on a surface of a pond. Insulation of the wave function unbound the particle from gravity and distance and permits entanglement. 

Image result for interference images free to download
Interference of waves.

Compact dimensions define a discrete frequency for the wave function. The universe is in constant change. Interaction switches the rates of oscillations between the compact dimensions, but it also changes the volume of space. 
Compact dimensions are separated from space top; interaction changes the volume of space around entangled particles. Interaction changes the shape of space and forms the smooth topology of gravity. 



The horizontal lines indicate the compact dimensions. Energy levels are increasing, but frequencies are decreasing from the top toward the bottom. Interaction changes the gravity (S shape) between the poles of the universe (black hole and white holes). 

If the universe is a giant clock, then the compact dimensions form its small hand. Gravity is the big hand, which indicates our distance from the poles (white and black holes); we are located at about halfway between the poles. The answer to the question in the title is both discrete and infinite! Establishing a solution in this question has ramifications for our understanding of the cosmos, for theoretical physics, pure mathematics, and even programming. 


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