Monday, July 3, 2017

Escape behavior depends on the size of danger: case study in the fruit fly

Image result for fruit fly images free
Fruit fly, Drosophila Melanogaster 

The fruit fly can produce two escape behaviors: a long, careful take off and a short, quick escape flight, which requires in flight maneuvering to achieve proper flight position. In the long take off, the flight first extends it wings, and jumps off the ground, while starting to fly. The whole maneuver lasts about 22ms. In the short take off, the fly just jumps with folded wings into the air. While in the air, it must take time to righting itself and its wings to achieve proper flight position, a process that takes only 6 ms. If the predator is slow, the fly chooses the long take off, because it provides more stability. However, if the predator is fast, the fly is more likely to choose short take off, in order to quickly escape.

In the fly's brain neurons code parallel for both looming velocity and for looming size. The proper response can emerge automatically, because of the parallel processing of the two signals. For example slow looming velocity and small looming size will always produce long take off, whereas fast looming velocity and large looming size always produces short take off. However, sensory experience that contain mixed signals  will produce a probability response between being either short or long take off. Parallel sensory processing and linear regulation occurs very often in the living world and often leads to complex regulation of behavior. Read the whole article... 

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Sunday, June 25, 2017

New hope for brain diseases, such as Parkinson's





The best current treatment for Parkinson's disease is deep brain stimulation, achieved by implanted electrodes within brain tissue. Brain stimulation was summarized in my earlier blog. The complex medical procedure, carries operational risks and does help everyone, because the target site is so difficult to find. Scientists from MIT and Harvard applied two, slightly different high frequency stimulation in animal brain, none of which had noticeable effect individually. However, at the place of their overlap, the two frequencies interfered to produce a much lower net frequency that is equal to their difference. This new method poses almost no risk factors, because the stimulation can be easily applied without operation. Furthermore, site of the stimulation can be also easily modified in order to achieve optimal effect.

Drawback? You cannot ask your doctor for the procedure yet, because so far it has only been applied in animals. Furthermore, the treatment is not available as a small device either. As of now, you cannot take your 'treatment cap' on the road just yet. Read the whole article.

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Sunday, June 4, 2017

Why do we need a new physical world view


Fresco of young woman

Our world is defined by technological progress and fast paced social change, increasing the complexity of our everyday life. The scientific achievements of the twentieth century have been spectacular in technology, physics, and medicine and led to the sense that we can master nature and understand existence. The increasing amount of detail and the pace of change necessitated greater specialization that elevated the social appreciation of the sciences and made formal education increasingly important. Yet, existing theories in physics fail to explain a long list of unsolved problems, such as the arrow of time, the cosmological constant problem, the interpretation of quantum mechanics and its unification with general relativity, the nature of gravity, dark energy and dark matter, the microwave background horizon problem, problems with the big bang, Mach’s principle, negative mass, physical information or the theory of everything. The unintuitive and even illogical nature of some areas in physics strains education, making it difficult to attract a new cadre of bright and original thinkers into research. However, problems on the above long list might be related and can be solved by reconsidering our understanding of the most basic questions in physics. A new physical world view, which includes consciousness, was introduced in my book, 'The Science of Consciousness.' If the book's premise is right, then it will cause a revolution in the sciences, similar to the change forced by Copernicus heliocentric idea or the introduction of general relativity. 

Investigating entropic changes based on the energy/information exchange during interaction takes physics back to its basic understanding, but it leads to an encompassing, and coherent, sorely needed clear world view, which might instigate a giant leap in physics. This new physical world view might make quantum mechanics an intuitive science, explain the origin of mass, show operational principle of gravity, throw light on the nature black holes, and the large scale structure of space. The new physical world view would turn physics into an intuitive, comprehensible science, which, by attracting a new generation of scientists into academic research would revitalize technological progress. Demystifying physics would be good for all areas of the sciences, because it would boost morale, inspire ideas, and increase public engagement and enthusiasm for funding of scientific and technological research. This new physical world view also includes consciousness, which would prompt innovative tools for the cure of neural and mental diseases. The hypothesis shows that the mind is the inextricable part of the universe, which is an organic extension of the self. The knowledge of being inalienable part of something bigger will give a sense of ownership, belonging and responsibility: Atman and Brahman are one. 


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Sunday, May 28, 2017

The structure of the Cosmos


 


The long list of unsolved problems in physics indicates that the Standard Model needs to be modified or reconsidered. The above video highlights two problem with Einstein's relativity: 1, space in vacuum is flat and 2, objects curve spacetime. It also exposes the vacuum energy problem, which is one of the greatest unsolved problems in quantum mechanics. The video also suggests a new understanding, which might solve not only the above mentioned problems, but points a way toward the unification of quantum mechanics and general relativity. Entanglement and the double slit experiments, which are fully supported by experiments, turn quantum mechanics incomprehensible, unituitive and baffling. Dividing the universe by an information blocking horizon is congruent with the holographic principle, proposed by Leonard Susskind (1995). Rethinking the basic structure of space might solve not only above mentioned contradictions in physics, but it obeys Mach's principle and it explains gravity.

Heisenberg uncertainty principle: 
As remembered from the video, the particle wave function and the spatial curvature changes in parallel. Increasing speed correspond to greater frequencies and positive field curvature (space contrasts). This way location is more certain, but the speed is uncertain. In contrast, lower frequencies correspond to smaller speed, but the negative curvature of space leads to an uncertainty of location. This uncertainty reaches it climax in the poles.

Vacuum energy
Quantum mechanics tells us that vacuum if full of energy. In fact, vacuum energy is one of the great unsolved problems in physics. Watch the above video to learn why vacuum actually expands the universe by curving space into the fourth dimension.

General relativity  
Einstein's general relativity tells us that the fabric of spacetime is curved within and around large gravitational objects, but it is flat in vacuum (see image below). The Michelson–Morley experiment to find the presence and properties of ether in 1887 proved that there was no such substance, therefore no directional asymmetry in the universe. Because of this finding cosmos is considered isotropic. However, so conventional Michelson–Morley type experiments would never detect dimensional anisotropy. Instead, dimensional anisotropy would form exponentially increasing energy need of acceleration and the gravitational differences depending on the curvature of space.
Thus, the universe is infinite (due to the dimension increase of white holes), but it has finite boundaries (due to the dimension decrease of black holes). Moving with constant speed corresponds to a movement along constant latitude, therefore it would bring one back to the starting point.


Massive object (such as a planet) curves spacetime according to general relativity 


Mach's principle:
Dark energy (the universe expansion) is explained by the zero point energy (the ground state energy of the quantum system). However, the expansion is far smaller than the calculations would suggest. However, four dimensional white holes would expand the universe at a rate dependent on the field strength of the black holes. Dimensional anisotropy also satisfies Mach's principle. Read the whole article or view it on Academia  The above proposed structure also leads to a cosmological evolution via interaction that engenders consciousness. So we are organic, inalienable part of the universe.

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Monday, May 1, 2017

Evaluation of Mach's Principle in four spatial dimensions

The three dimensional structure of Laniakea and Perseus Pisces galaxy clusters by Tully et al (2014)



Recent cosmological data shows the Milky Way galaxy being pushed ahead of a void. Independently, laboratory research created matter with negative mass. A possible relationship between these seemingly unrelated results indicates the need to reexamine our understanding of gravity. According to Page and Wootter mechanism, time is globally static, but emergent for ‘internal’ observers. That is, interaction increases the energy-information differences among the constituents of the cosmos. Such temporal evolution engenders polar singularities, known as black and white holes, in accordance with general relativity. The second law of thermodynamics leads to Landauer’s principle, which shows that the emitted heat is proportional to the erased information of the system. Thus, information accumulates heat in black hole horizons, which have been found to be two dimensional; whereas information-free areas are energy rich and cold. The principle of static time dictates information and dimensional complementarity between antipodal areas of the universe. Two dimensional, positive curvature black holes must be balanced by negative curvature, four dimensional white holes, which expand space and lead to the experience of ‘dark energy.’ Positive curvature forms great field strength, which stabilizes the universe with a pressure experienced as excess gravity, called dark matter. Enhanced field strength leads to clumping, forming planets, stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters, which slows expansion. The dimensional anisotropy (two in the black holes and four in the white holes) straddle unstable three dimensional galactic environments between them. An object’s position in space corresponds to a freely hanging plumb. Deviations in angle of that plumb (position of the object) – thereby changes the equilibrium of the whole universe and leads to inertia, a force that is proportional to both the mass of the object and the field strength (i.e. radial topological distance from the center). Therefore inertia is greatest in the vicinity of the black holes. On the positively curved polar surfaces of space (such as a planet) a path that curves toward the pole forms the shortest distance. On positive curving temporal surfaces the shortest time is acceleration, which leads to the twin paradox. The hypothesis is congruent with the latest CMB data, satisfies Mach’s principle as well as Occam’s razor by uncovering a surprisingly simple, stable and unified alignment of the universe. This new physical world view is presented without equations, reflecting the futility of a universal calculation method. Read the whole article or view it on Academia 


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Monday, April 17, 2017

Consciousness based quantum computer






Responses to stimuli improve the brain’s operational symmetry vis-à-vis the physical world and engender the mind, a symmetric and operational analogue to elementary particles. Photons are the fundamental forces for interaction between fermions and emotions are energy imbalances of the brain, which trigger actions that recover the energy neutral state. In the brain, all change is based on sensory processing. Perception of sensory stimulus or reading road signs are involuntary and automatic, because sensory stimulus impinges on the mind through the shifting energy balances of the brain. This essential connection with the environment must also characterize AI. In a feeling robot, in place of neurons, sensory pattern perception can be formed by, for example, neurosynaptic chips. A highly precise response is possible by utilizing deep-learning systems, which are getting more powerful. In the computer ‘brain,’ just like in the organic brain, the energy balance would continuously change in an automatic fashion, and ultimately would recover the energy-neutral state, according to the principle of least action, which corresponds to an intelligent response. Response is the stable, standing-wave state of the system. Energy imbalances would equal the emotional states of mammals and birds. Propagation of stimulus is a series of activation that strengthens connections between units; the energy need is reduced in previously activated units. Subsequent activation channels the signal according to the principle of least action, leading to segregated modular structure.

Current quantum computers need to be carefully insulated from environmental interaction due to sensitivity to noise, i.e., interference. However, the brain is a temporal quantum system, which interacts across temporal coordinates (see: Consciousness, a Cosmic Phenomenon). Temporal quantum systems, such as the brain, are insulated by the temporal rhythm of neural activation. Energy imbalance manifests as emotions. Hence, emotions are unstable and move the system towards equilibrium; the exact neuronal activation path is the function of both the original stimulus and past behavior. This way the cortical brain, regulated by its energy states, formulates an intelligent response. Read the whole article  Deli, E., (2017). Consciousness inspired AI system. AISB Quarterly. (145) 6-11.


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Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Cognitive phenomena show quantum, particle-like features



Unlike stationary plants animals actively enhance their access to information – thus chances of survival - via the sensory system. The sensory organs are information grabbing machines; seeing further, smelling keener enables animals to gather nutrients (i.e., expanding time) and avoid physical dangers (i.e., time compression), an effective time machine that can lead to the relativity of time perception. Interaction through sensory stimulus corresponds to energy-information exchange. The path, rhythm, extent and other physical qualities of brain frequencies are finely regulated and turn the brain into a complex, yet subtle system. But the brain is much more than a finely-regulated circuit board. Electric flows generate associations, meaning and memory in ways reminiscent of quantum networks. Quantum theory became a mainstream, accepted scientific idea for modeling mental phenomena and the mind’s quantum-like behavior is exploited in fields as diverse as search-engine optimization, psychology, economy, and sociology – in some cases for nearly a century. More than 70 recent national surveys, which examined the order effect of successive attitude questions, found quantum probability theory an impeccable predictor of human judgement. In quantum systems outcome is highly dependent on the context of measurement and likewise, almost all cognitive processes, such as memory, decisions and perception, have contextual nature. Therefore quantum probability theory, which was invented to explain noncommutativity of measurements in physics, provides simple and surprisingly accurate predictive power in studying order effects in social and behavioral science. In the brain, the appropriate temporal order of the cortex neuronal activation pattern triggers corresponding memories or experience, and forms a „temporal horizon.” Reminiscent of the observer effect in quantum mechanics, the quantum-like evolution of the brain maintains the unity and permanence of the mind. Measurement (interaction) actively changes the particle being measured, and in the brain it corresponds to cognitive change. The mental world is sectioned into a stable, step-wise progression of perception or learning, such as the empowering moment of riding a bike for the first time. This is the same for recognition, getting a joke, or meeting a friend. There is a moment of inspiration (loss, shame or fear), when a new balance is formed and understanding clicks. In line with this observation, it has been suggested that conscious awareness necessarily demands mental content being held “fixed”, “frozen” within a discrete but continuous progressive present moment that stands for a phenomenal unity. Therefore, instead of the spatial relationships of the material world, conscious changes which are embedded into the physical reality and its laws, happen over time. This occurs, because spatial relationships, encoded in sensory stimulus, are translated into temporal rhythms, an orthogonal organization, by the place cells of the hippocampus. The brain’s gradually improving responses to stimuli molded the brain into the structural, organizational mirror of physical systems. Therefore, social interaction engenders particle-like features, such as uncertainty, hysteresis and territorial needs by the Pauli exclusion principle.

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